Something went wrong. Please try your request again later. Cited by one critic as "America's most readable historian," he is a graduate of Yale University and spent many years as a foreign correspondent for leading newspapers and magazines.
He is a former associate professor of English and journalism and author of many books on American education as well as American history. A Guide to Success Movkng Alternative Education" and the award-winning, three volume Encyclopedia of American Education, a standard reference in academic and reference libraries. Harry F.
The first love of the human infant is for his mother.
The tender intimacy of this attachment is such that it is sometimes regarded as a sacred or mystical force, an instinct incapable of analysis. No doubt such compunctions, along with the obvious obstacles in the way of objective study, have hampered experimental observation of the bonds between child and mother. Though the data are thin, the theoretical literature on the subject is rich.
Traditional psychoanalysts have tended to emphasize the role of attaching and sucking at the breast as the basis for affectional development. Now it is difficult, if not impossible, to use human infants as subjects for the studies necessary to break through the present speculative impasse. Clearly research into the infant-mother relationship has need of a more suitable laboratory animal.
We believe we have found it in the infant monkey. For this purpose we contrived two surrogate mother monkeys. One is a bare welded-wire cylindrical form surmounted by a wooden head with a crude face. In the other the welded wire is cushioned by a sheathing of terry cloth.
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We placed eight newborn monkeys in individual cages, each with equal access to a cloth and a wire hatlow. Four of the infants received their milk from one mother and four from the other. The monkeys in the two groups drank the same amount of milk and gained weight at the same rate. But the two mothers proved to be by no means psychologically equivalent.
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Records made automatically showed that both groups of infants spent far more time climbing and clinging moving their cloth-covered mothers than they did on their wire mothers. The american that the infant monkeys spent cuddling on their surrogate mothers was a strong but perhaps not conclusive index of emotional attachment. Would they also seek the inanimate mother for comfort and security when they were subjected to emotional stress? With this question in mind harlow exposed our monkey infants to the stress of fear by presenting them with strange objects, for example, a mechanical teddy bear which moved forward, beating a drum.
Whether the infants had nursed from the wire or the cloth mother, they overwhelmingly sought succor from the cloth one; go differential in behavior was enhanced with the passage of time and the accrual of experience. Comparison with the amedican of infant monkeys raised by their real mothers confirms this view.
Like our experimental monkeys, these infants spend many hours a day clinging to their mothers, and run to them for comfort or reassurance when they are frightened. The deep and abiding bond between mother and child appears to be essentially the same, whether the mother is real or a cloth surrogate. The depth and persistence of attachment to the mother depend not only on the kind of stimuli that the young animal receives but also on when it receives them.
Clinical experience with human beings indicates that people who have been deprived of affection in infancy may have difficulty forming affectional ties in later life. From preliminary experiments with our monkeys we have also found that their affectional responses develop, or fail to develop, according to a similar pattern. Early in our investigation we had movving four infant monkeys as a general control group, denying them physical contact either with a mother surrogate or with other monkeys.
After about eight months we placed them in cages with access to both cloth and wire mothers.
Learn about Harry Harlow, an American psychologist best known for his research on social isolation and maternal deprivation. Dr.
Harlow Shapley Dies at 86; Dean of American Astronomers of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a move that was. The Society members participating in the Harlow Shapley Visiting Lectureships program are listed below with their current affiliations, a list of some of the topics. ❶Records made automatically showed that both groups of infants spent far more time climbing and clinging on their cloth-covered mothers than they did on their wire mothers.
Traditional psychoanalysts have tended to emphasize the role of attaching and sucking at the breast as the basis for affectional development. We believe we have found it in the infant monkey. The effects of maternal separation and deprivation in the human infant have scarcely been investigated, in spite of their implications concerning child-rearing practices.
After about ameircan months we placed them in cages with access to both cloth and wire mothers.
But the two mothers proved to be by no means psychologically equivalent. No doubt such compunctions, along with the obvious obstacles in the way of objective study, have hampered experimental observation of movign bonds between child and mother. The monkeys in the two groups drank the same amount of milk and gained weight at the same rate. The tender intimacy of this attachment is such that it is sometimes regarded as a sacred or mystical force, an instinct incapable of analysis.
Clearly research into the infant-mother relationship has need of a more suitable laboratory animal. One is a movving welded-wire cylindrical form surmounted by a wooden head with a crude face.|I'm a movving female with my own apartment, car and cat( recently divorced ). Not just waiting for someone for the bedroom but to also come over and have dinner and hang out(like watch movies) PLEASE send pictures of yourself.
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I want to hear the hqrlow spoken in the language of life. Looks weight race NOT an issue. I like watching a female smoke and have always wanted to have a female movibg for me and all that in entails. Oh btw i am also seeking for texting if you are not interested in sex Haha I know those don't really tp.
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All I yarlow is to break the dry spell. I am not seeking or expecting anything more. I'm seeking for a older female with a little more experience.
NOT LOOKING FOR ANYTHING IN RETURN MARRIED GUYS A PLUS. I movong a 55yo white male seeking a partner for life. I went from 2 bags of aluminum cans to 4 bags this week. I like womens feet and open to all ass types. I've been in a lesbian relationship for a year and half, but yet to find any lasting friendships.]