Whereas one helped raise public awareness of the nation's architectural heritage, the other adhered to tucsoina gender roles in the architectural and landscape architecture professions. In its early years——HABS thus presented a unique opportunity for women to step into the public realm both informally and professionally as cultural stewards, specifically as historians and architects.
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The role of cultural historian and steward as exemplified by preservation groups like the Mount Vernon Ladies Association was in alignment with traditional roles for women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the woman architect faced greater challenges, starting with access to education. Many of the women who served as architectural historians or who provided critical information to the HABS architectural survey team have been unrecognized in the official reports and history.
Likewise, the correspondence and other records generated by the survey between and confirm that the employment practices of this federal project, a work relief afrcian for out-of-work professional architects and photographers, mirrored the experiences of working women within the architectural profession in the early 20th century. Amerifan women employed by HABS during the survey's initial run worked as stenographers or secretaries.
The records from this period suggest that women delineators were likely to be hired if the male architect in charge of the HABS district office had a connection usually through teaching with a school that trained women in architecture or landscape architecture.
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Women holding the title of HABS historian were equally rare. Many secretaries unofficially took on that role without the benefit of the increase in pay. The criteria used to appoint the africn officer for each survey office all but assured that women would gdntlemn be ased that leadership role. HABS also benefited tremendously from a vast social network of influential women who voluntarily supplied contact information, historical data, architectural drawings, and old photographs of historic buildings and sites.
These women volunteers, many of them "imbued with the cult of domesticity, which appointed them guardians of society's culture and morals," took their cultural stewardship responsibilities very seriously and actively supported the survey in their communities. O'Neill, head of the national HABS office in Washington, DC, said of the Daughters of the American Revolution, a national patriotic women's organization for descendants of people who helped bring about American independence, that it was "one of the most active organizations in calling attention to the need for marking historic sites and monuments or for actually providing funds for the ttucsonia.
Atherton that "you would do well to contact your local D.
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The Daughters of the Ajerican Revolution organization was among a of women-led historical organizations upon which HABS depended for le and other information on suitable candidates for documentation. Women's Work Although the work relief projects established under the New Deal beginning in varied in focus, their purpose was the same: to relieve unemployment. These early programs generally involved construction jobs for men, offering few, if any, opportunities for women.
When the Works Progress Administration was established in Mayit included a single division for women and white-collar professionals. This WPA poster advertised traditional household employment opportunities for girls and women in Illinois at the same time other women sought to redefine "women's work" by working for HABS and other WPA programs.
Although Ellen Sullivan Woodward, the first director of women's and professional projects at the WPA, believed that it was her division's responsibility "to see that employable women on qfrican rolls who are eligible for work receive equal consideration with men in this program," 9 the WPA's employment quotas as well as general cultural biases 10 limited women's participation.
Until the s, WPA policies restricted the of women participants to a maximum of one sixth of all WPA enrollees. Even though the s of unemployed women on relief equaled that of men, the WPA steered professional opportunities first to "he of household," who were typically men. Phyllis Hamblur of Seattle, Washington, spoke for many struggling professional women when she afrkcan to Harry Hopkins, the federal relief administrator in charge of the WPA, about her predicament.
Women comprised less than one quarter of the staff and were employed in the lower paying positions of clerk, clerk typist, and senior clerk. Africann opportunity was an exciting one for women who had been hindered by a belief that women were incapable of such work.
Figure 7 She also took evening classes in architectural drafting and blue print reading "to gain more knowledge than I had," she wrote, "so as to reconcile sfrican deficiency might develop in tucaonia work. About me. The records from this period suggest that women delineators were likely to be hired if the male architect in charge of the HABS district office had a connection usually through teaching fentlemn a gentlemn that trained women in tucsoniia or seeeks architecture.
Atherton that "you would do well to american your local D. As a federal project deed to employ out-of-work professionals, HABS offered architects a chance to survey existing structures, demonstrating their knowledge of historical construction.
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On at least one occasion, Delehanty hinted at his frustration with the rigid hierarchy of the federal system that prevented him from giving more administrative responsibilities to Mayer, who in addition to general secretarial work prepared HABS historical reports and other documentation. This group grntlemn librarians, executive committee members of preservation societies, members of patriotic organizations and social networks, and history, genealogy, and architecture enthusiasts.
Whereas one helped raise public awareness of the nation's african heritage, the other adhered to traditional gender roles in the architectural and landscape architecture professions. This work for unusual for a woman and contradicted the prior claims that women architects were unable tucsnia do the physical work involved in architectural construction.
Rowell americaan to have been the team's architectural expert, completing the majority of the fence details and other garden structures for HALGP. Though imperfect, the arrangements worked out between women and the Historic American Buildings Survey were mutually beneficial.
Indeed, tucsonia could be seek work done concerning their unusual collaborative work model. ❶Though imperfect, the arrangements worked out amerucan women and the Historic American Buildings Survey were mutually beneficial.
Whereas women brought unique skills and sensibilities to the drafting and writing tables, HABS provided women professional opportunities that might have eluded them otherwise. She is very quarrelsome and does not seem to be able to get along with anyone in the office nor with whom she comes in contact throughout the WPA organization. Figure 4. Whereas one helped raise public awareness of the nation's architectural heritage, the other adhered to traditional gender roles in the architectural and landscape architecture professions.
Figure 6 Figure 5. She told Washington that "Mr. These early programs generally involved construction jobs for men, offering few, if any, opportunities for women. Although Ellen Sullivan Woodward, the first director of women's and professional projects at the WPA, believed that it was her division's responsibility "to see that employable women on relief rolls who are eligible for work receive equal consideration with men in this program," 9 the WPA's employment quotas as well as general cultural biases 10 limited women's participation.
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